Stretching a carbon nanotube composite, researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) have made some of the first measurements of how single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) both scatter and absorb polarized light.
SWNTs have excited materials scientists with the promise of novel materials that have exceptional mechanical, electronic, and optical properties. Recent research on the optics of SWNTs has focused on the behaviour of “excitons” – the pairing of a negatively charged electron with the positively charged “hole” that it leaves behind when it gets excited by a photon into a higher energy state. An important optical characteristic is how excitons in SWNTs impact the way the nanotubes absorb and scatter light.
Measuring that is difficult because the effect depends on the orientation of the nanotubes, and they’re hard to line up neatly. The NIST/RIT team solved the problem elegantly by wrapping SWNTs with DNA to keep them from clumping together, and dispersing them in a polymer. When they heated the polymer and stretched it in one direction, the nanotubes aligned, making the optical measurements possible. The team obtained the first experimental verification of the full optical response of individual semiconducting SWNTs, finding good agreement with theory.
The stretching alignment technique is applicable to a broad range of SWNT experiments where orientation is important, particularly in optics. The work should further our current understanding of how nanotubes interact with light, with important practical applications in optical sensing and the manipulation of individual nanotubes using electromagnetic fields.
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