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The strength of a laminate is usually thought of in terms of how much load it can withstand before it suffers complete failure. This ultimate or breaking strength is the point it which the resin exhibits catastrophic breakdown and the fibre reinforcements break.
However, before this ultimate strength is achieved, the laminate will reach a stress level where the resin will begin to crack away from those fibre reinforcements not aligned with the applied load, and these cracks will spread through the resin matrix. This is known as ‘transverse micro-cracking’ and, although the laminate has not completely failed at this point, the breakdown process has commenced. Consequently, engineers who want a long-lasting structure must ensure that their laminates do not exceed this point under regular service loads.
The strain that a laminate can reach before microcracking depends strongly on the toughness and adhesive properties of the resin system. For brittle resin systems, such as most polyesters, this point occurs a long way before laminate failure, and so severely limits the strains to which such laminates can be subjected. As an example, recent tests have shown that for a polyester/glass woven roving laminate, micro-cracking typically occurs at about 0.2% strain with ultimate failure not occurring until 2.0% strain. This equates to a usable strength of only 10% of the ultimate strength.
As the ultimate strength of a laminate in tension is governed by the strength of the fibres, these resin micro-cracks do not immediately reduce the ultimate properties of the laminate. However, in an environment such as water or moist air, the micro-cracked laminate will absorb considerably more water than an uncracked laminate. This will then lead to an increase in weight, moisture attack on the resin and fibre sizing agents, loss of stiffness and, with time, an eventual drop in ultimate properties.
Increased resin/fibre adhesion is generally derived from both the resin’s chemistry and its compatibility with the chemical surface treatments applied to fibres. Here the well-known adhesive properties of epoxy help laminates achieve higher microcracking strains. As has been mentioned previously, resin toughness can be hard to measure, but is broadly indicated by its ultimate strain to failure.
Published courtesy of David Cripps, Gurit
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