Composites World / NetComposites

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Fabric, Nonwoven

A material formed from fibres or yarns without interlacing (e.g., stitched bonded, nonwoven broadgoods).

Fabric, Woven

A material constructed of interlaced yarns, fibres or filaments produced by the weaving process.


The process of making a composite part or tool.

Feathered Edge

A fabric edge that tapers down in weight instead of abruptly ending.


A general term used to refer to filamentary materials. Often, fibre is used synonymously with filament.

Fibre Architecture

The design of a fibrous part in which the fibres are arranged in a particular way to achieve the desired result. This can include braided, stitched or woven fabrics, or mats, rovings or carbon tows.

Fibre Content

The amount of fibre present in a composite. This is usually expressed as a percentage volume fraction or weight fraction of the composite.

Fibre Diameter

A term used to denote the diameter of continuous glass filaments. Their diameter can vary depending on the purpose for which they are to be used. Can be expressed in letter designation, microns or inches.

Fibre Direction

The orientation or alignment of the longitudinal axis of the fibre with respect to a stated reference axis.

Fibre Glass

Primarily means glass in fibre form. However, “fibre glass” is also used to describe composite processing and applications. Examples of usage: fibre glass moulding plant, fibre glass car.

Fibre Orientation

The fibre alignment in a nonwoven or a mat laminate in which most of the fibres are in the same direction, thereby affording higher strength in that direction.

Fibre Pattern

Visible fibres on the surface of laminates or mouldings; the thread size and weave of glass cloth.

Fibre Prominence

The appearance of reinforcement fibres in the surface of a moulded part. Can also be termed pattern print-through, strike-through or fibre pattern.

Fibre Reinforced Plastics (Frp)

A general term for composite materials or parts that consist of a resin matrix that contains reinforcing fibres such as glass or fibre and have greater strength or stiffness than the resin. FRP is most often used to denote glass fibre-reinforced plastics.


The smallest unit of a fibrous material. The basic units formed during drawing and spinning, which are gathered into strands of fibre for use in composites. Filaments usually are of extreme length and very small diameter, usually less than 25 micron. Normally filaments are not used individually. Some textile filaments can function as yarn when they are of sufficient strength and flexibility.

Filament Winding

A process for fabricating a composite structure in which continuous reinforcements (filament, wire, yarn, tape, or other), either previously impregnated with a matrix material or impregnated during the winding, are placed over a rotating and removable form.


A phenomenon in which a coated strand breaks up into loose individual filaments.


That part of a woven fabric in which the strands are perpendicular to the main direction of the fabric (warp), the strands running from selvage to selvage . Also called weft.


A relatively inert substance added to a material to alter its physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical, and other properties or to lower cost or density. Sometimes the term is used specifically to mean particulate additives.

Film Adhesive

An adhesive in the form of a thin, dry, resin film with or without a carrier, commonly used for adhesion between layers of laminates.

Flame Retardants

Certain chemicals that are used to reduce or eliminate a resin’s tendency to burn.


Excess material which forms at the parting line of a mould or die, or which is extruded from a closed mould.


The movement of resin under pressure, allowing it to fill all parts of a mould; flow or creep the gradual but continuous distortion of a material under continued load, usually at high temperature.

Flow Line

A mark on a moulded piece made by the meeting of two flow fronts during moulding. (Also, ‘striae’, or ‘weld-mark,’ or ‘weld-line.’)


Loose filaments of fibre that have broken from their parent strand during processing and are freely floating in the air.


Acronym for fibre glass-reinforced or fibre-reinforced plastic, polymer or polyester.


Detached and broken glass fibre that has collected on processing equipment.